High Altitude Sickness in Leh Ladakh: Causes, Symptoms, Prevention, and Remedies

Nestled in the stirring Himalayas, Leh Ladakh beckons travellers with its surreal landscapes, ancient monasteries, and rich cultural heritage. However, hidden amidst the charm of this high-altitude wonderland lies a significant health concern-High Altitude Sickness, also known as Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS). This comprehensive guide will dig into AMS’s causes, symptoms, and preventative measures in Ladakh and explore home remedies and specifics to manage this condition effectively.

Acute Mountain Sickness or High-Altitude Sickness

Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) is a condition that affects individuals when they ascend to a high mound too fleetly, depriving their bodies of acceptable time to adjust to the lower oxygen situations at such heights. When tourists venture to destinations at advanced mounds, their bodies must acclimate to the decreased barometric pressure, which causes a reduction in the partial pressure of oxygen in the air. As a result, less oxygen is available to the body’s tissues, leading to AMS symptoms. Leh Ladakh, with an average altitude of roughly 3500 meters (11482 feet) above sea level, qualifies as a high-altitude region, making it imperative for visitors to be aware of the potential risks associated with AMS.

Causes of Altitude Sickness in Ladakh

One must understand the primary factors contributing to this condition to comprehend altitude sickness in Ladakh. AMS occurs primarily due to reduced partial pressure of oxygen at the advanced mound, leading to lower oxygen levels in the bloodstream. When individuals ascend too quickly, their bodies struggle to acclimate to environmental changes, which can affect the onset of altitude sickness. Furthermore, individual variations in susceptibility to AMS play a significant part, with some people being more prone to its effects than others.
Apart from the rapid ascent, other factors that increase the risk of AMS include

Lack of Acclimatization

Insufficient time for the body to acclimate to advanced elevations is a leading cause of AMS. Travellers who ascend too rapidly without allowing adequate acclimatization are more susceptible to undergoing severe symptoms.

Physical Fitness

While fitness doesn’t guarantee immunity to AMS, individuals in good physical shape might have better oxygen utilization, aiding adaptation.


Young children and older adults are generally at an advanced threat of developing AMS due to implicit vulnerabilities in their respiratory and cardiovascular systems.

Pre-Existing Medical Conditions

Individuals with certain medical conditions, such as respiratory diseases or heart problems, may undergo intensified AMS threats.

Symptoms of AMS in Ladakh

Recognizing the symptoms of AMS is pivotal to ensure timely intervention and help prevent the condition from worsening. The onset of symptoms generally occurs within 12 to 24 hours of thrusting to the advanced mound. Common symptoms of altitude sickness include


One of the hallmark symptoms of AMS is a patient throbbing headache that may feel similar to a hangover.

Nausea and Vomiting

Numerous individuals witness sensibilities of nausea, which can occasionally lead to puking.

Dizziness and Fatigue

AMS can cause dizziness and extreme fatigue, leaving individuals feeling weak and sleepy.

Shortness of Breath

Due to the reduced oxygen availability, breathing may become laboured, especially during physical exertion.

Loss of Appetite

AMS can diminish the desire to eat, leading to reduced food intake.

Sleep Disturbances

Difficulty in sleeping is common, and tourists may witness irregular sleep patterns.

It’s important to note that symptoms may vary from person to person and can range from mild to severe. In severe cases, AMS can progress to more severe forms of altitude sickness, such as High-Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE) and High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE), which bear immediate medical attention.

At What Height Will You Suffer from Altitude Sickness?

While there’s no fixed altitude at which AMS will strike, symptoms tend to become noticeable at elevations above 2500 meters (8200 feet). As you mount further and cross the 3500 meters (11482 feet) threshold, the threat of altitude sickness significantly increases. Several regions in Ladakh are positioned at similar heights and warrant extra caution, including;

Leh City

As the starting point for most Ladakh journeys, Leh City’s elevation of roughly 3500 meters (11482 feet) poses a moderate threat to AMS. Many travellers arrive by air, which involves a rapid ascent, increasing the likelihood of experiencing symptoms.

Nubra Valley

The breathtaking Nubra Valley, positioned at over 3000 meters (9842 feet), requires careful adaptation. Visitors to this valley often cross the Khardung La Pass, one of the highest motorable passes globally, further exposing them to altitude-related hazards.

Pangong Tso & Tso Moriri

These mesmerizing lakes are located at mounds exceeding 4200 meters (13780 feet), demanding extra vigilance against altitude sickness. The pristine beauty of these lakes can occasionally distract travellers from the need for proper adaptation.

Srinagar Leh Highway

Travellers crossing this scenic trace must know its high elevations and take necessary preventives. The trace involves crossing Zoji La Pass, a critical point where tourists are vulnerable to AMS.

How to Handle Altitude Sickness in Ladakh

Mitigating the threat of AMS is essential to ensure a pleasurable and safe trip to Ladakh. Below are some practical tips for handling altitude sickness effectively.

Slow Gain in Altitude

Opt for a gradual ascent and allow your body time to adjust at each new altitude. Plan your itinerary with rest days to facilitate the adaptation process. Avoiding direct flights to Leh and choosing an overland route allows for better adaptation.

Avoid Smoking & Alcohol Consumption

Smoking and alcohol can complicate the effects of AMS. Nicotine and alcohol lead to dehydration, worsening altitude sickness symptoms. Refraining from these habits during your stay in Ladakh is pivotal to minimize the risk.

Sleeping Habits

On your first night in Ladakh, consider staying at a lower altitude to help your body acclimate gradationally. Once there, try sleeping in a slightly elevated position to smooth breathing. It may also help to use an extra pillow to promote the head.

Eating & Drinking Habits

Maintain a balanced carbohydrate-rich diet to give your body the necessary energy. Carbohydrates help the body generate energy efficiently in low-oxygen conditions. Stay well-hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids, preferably water or herbal teas, and avoid heavy meals, making you feel more uncomfortable at higher mounds.

Don’t Exert Yourself

During the initial days of your trip, take it easy and avoid engaging in emphatic conditioning. Give your body the time it needs to acclimatize to the altitude. However, ensure that you’re well-adapted before trying them, if you plan to take over physically demanding conditioning.

Avoid Turning the Heater On

Heaters can reduce oxygen levels in certain accommodations, potentially exacerbating AMS symptoms. Instead, keep your room cool and use extra blankets for warmth. Lower oxygen levels due to heaters can worsen altitude sickness symptoms, so it’s best to maintain a comfortable temperature without compromising your health.

Medicines for Altitude Sickness in Ladakh

Sometimes, travellers may profit from medications to help or treat altitude sickness. Acetazolamide (Diamox) is a generally specified medicine that aids in stimulating breathing and perfecting oxygenation. It works by increasing the blood’s acidity, which prompts the body to breathe more fleetly, providing better oxygen intake. Acetazolamide can be taken as a preventative measure, starting a day or two before thrusting to an advanced mound or as a treatment if AMS symptoms appear.

Before using any drug, it’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional, especially if you have any pre-existing medical conditions or are taking other medications. A doctor can help assess the appropriateness of acetazolamide for your individual needs and give the correct dosage instructions.

Home Remedies for AMS in Leh Ladakh

In addition to specifics, several natural remedies can assist in managing altitude sickness.

Ginger/ Ginger Water

Ginger has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for nausea and digestive discomfort. It’s known for its anti-nausea properties and can help alleviate symptoms of AMS. Consider drinking ginger water or biting on ginger slices in Ladakh. Ginger also has anti-inflammatory properties, which can help with headaches and body pains.

Garlic/ Clove

Both garlic and clove are believed to aid in adaptation. These natural herbs are known for their medicinal properties and are allowed to affect the respiratory system positively. You can consume them raw or incorporate them into your meals to ease the effects of altitude sickness.

Lavender Oil

Inhaling lavender oil may help reduce anxiety and headaches associated with altitude sickness, contributing to a more relaxed experience. You can use a diffuser or apply many drops of lavender oil to a cloth and inhale the scent when demanded.

Altitude Sickness on Manali Leh Highway

The trip along the Manali Leh Highway also involves significant altitude changes, and trippers may witness AMS during this route. The trace crosses several high-altitude passes, similar to Baralacha La, Nakee La, and Tanglang La, making it essential for travellers to be apprehensive of the potential risks. Understanding the hazards of AMS and espousing preventative measures, such as gradational ascent and adaptation, is pivotal for a safe and pleasurable trip.

Travelling to Ladakh with Children

Special attention is needed when travelling with children or babies to high mounds. Children and babies are more vulnerable to altitude sickness due to their developing respiratory and cardiovascular systems. It’s essential to consult a paediatrician before the trip to ensure their health suitability for high-altitude trips. The doctor may give specific recommendations, such as providing small doses of acetazolamide to children to help prevent altitude sickness.

Additionally, parents should be watchful about any signs of discomfort or AMS symptoms in their children. Rest days and gradual ascent are even more critical when travelling with young ones to minimize the risk of altitude-related health issues. Parents should also ensure proper hydration and give familiar and comforting items, which can help reduce stress and anxiety in children at advanced elevations.


Embarking on a trip to Leh Ladakh is an adventure like no other, but the implicit pitfalls of altitude sickness cannot be ignored. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and preventative measures of AMS, tourists can make informed decisions to ensure a safe and memorable trip. Prioritizing gradual adaptation, staying well-hydrated, and considering natural remedies or medications when demanded, visitors can embrace the appeal of Ladakh while safeguarding against altitude sickness.

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